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Filtration

Filtration is the process of separating suspended solid matter from a liquid, by causing the latter to pass through the pores of some substance, called a filter. The liquid which has passed through the filter is called the filtrate. The filter may be paper, cloth, cotton-wool, asbestos, slag- or glass-wool, unglazed earthenware, sand, or other porous material.

There are many different methods of filtration; all aim to attain the separation of substances. Separation is achieved by some form of interaction between the substance or objects to be removed and the filter. The substance that is to pass through the filter must be a fluid, i.e. a liquid or gas. Methods of filtration vary depending on the location of the targeted material, i.e. whether it is dissolved in the fluid phase or suspended as a solid.

There are several filtration techniques depending on the desired outcome namely, hot, cold and vacuum filtration. Some of the major purposes of getting a desired outcome are, for the removal of impurities from a mixture or, for the isolation of solids from a mixture.